Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism

‘The Battle of Kohima and it’s Memoirs’ ~ the Kohima War Cemetery, Kohima, the State of Nagaland, Incredible India!

The period of 1939 to 1945 was one of the darkest moments in the history of mankind. It was during this period the world witnessed the Second World War – a state of ‘total war’ where the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. This war brought down the major super powers of the period into ashes. Japan was rocked with the mighty nuclear explosion of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was after the Second World War that the world realized the might of the Americans!

The World War II might have brought down the will of the Germans and Japanese to be the might of the World but it to be mentioned that all wars lead to destruction of devastating proportion. The World War II too led to the same fate and millions of people were killed around the world that included the soldiers of the Army who laid down their lives to bring peace to the World. The bodies of these brave soldiers were laid to rest across various cemeteries through the World and one of such is the Kohima War Cemetery that was built and is maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Located in the heart of the Capital city of Nagaland ~ Kohima, this cemetery has about 1420 burials mostly of Commonwealth soldiers who laid their lives during World War II.

The Battle of Kohima was the turning point of the Japanese U Go offensive into India in 1944 during the Second World War. The battle was fought in three stages from 4 April to 22 June 1944 around the town of Kohima in Nagaland. From 3 to 16 April, the Japanese attempted to capture Kohima ridge, a feature which dominated the road by which the besieged British and Indian troops of IV Corps at Imphal were supplied.The British and Indian reinforcements counter-attacked to drive the Japanese from the positions they had captured. The Japanese abandoned the ridge at this point but continued to block the Kohima–Imphal road. The British and Indian troops pursued the retreating Japanese and reopened the road. The battle ended on 22 June when British and Indian troops from Kohima and Imphal met at Milestone 109, ending the Siege of Imphal.

The Kohima War Cemetery is set in peaceful surroundings with well-manicured grassland. The cemetery is sited at the exact location where the battle was fought, and provides a panoramic view of the city of Kohima. Tall concrete structures engraved with the cross mark at its two ends. Between the two structures, along the sloping ground, a series of terraces of 3–5 metres in height have been created; these contain stone markers embedded with bronze plaques carrying the name of each Commonwealth soldier who died on the Kohima battlefield.

And truly mentioned in one of the quotes of the cemetery –

“WHEN YOU GO HOME… TELL THEM OF US AND SAY FOR YOUR TOMORROW WE GAVE OUR TODAY…”

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to Witness History and Relive the Memoirs of the ‘The Battle of Kohima and the Memoirs of World War II’ ~ the Kohima War Cemetery, Kohima, the State of Nagaland, Incredible India!

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
The Kohima War Cemetery in Nagaland

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
Memorial at the Kohima War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
The Memorial Stone that reads a Caption of the Brave Soldiers at the Kohima War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
Burials at the Kohima War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
CWGC information on the Battle of Kohima at the Kohima War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
Neatly aligned graves at the Kohima War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
Kohima War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
Names of the Soldiers buried at the Kohima War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
Memoirs of the 2nd Division who fell at the Battle of Kohima

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
Burials at the Kohima War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Hornbill Festival Nagaland, Nagaland Tourism, Assam Tourism
The Kohima War Cemetery was built and is maintained by the CWGC

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Kohima Hotels, Dzukou Valley, Hornbill Festival Nagaland
The Majestic view of the Kohima War Cemetery ~ Kohima ~ Nagaland ~ India

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Kohima Hotels, Dzukou Valley, Hornbill Festival Nagaland
The Kohima World War II Cemetery ~ Kohima ~ Nagaland ~ India

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Kohima Hotels, Dzukou Valley, Hornbill Festival Nagaland
The well maintained burials of the Kohima War Cemetery ~ Kohima ~ Nagaland ~ India

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Kohima Hotels, Dzukou Valley, Hornbill Festival Nagaland
The neatly aligned burials at the Kohima War Cemetery ~ Kohima ~ Nagaland ~ India

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Kohima Hotels, Dzukou Valley, Hornbill Festival Nagaland
The Center Holy Cross at the Kohima War Cemetery ~ Kohima ~ Nagaland ~ India

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Kohima Hotels, Dzukou Valley, Hornbill Festival Nagaland
Brief introduction to the Kohima War Cemetery ~ Kohima ~ Nagaland ~ India

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Kohima War Cemetery, Kohima Hotels, Dzukou Valley, Hornbill Festival Nagaland
Names of the Soldiers buried at the Kohima War Cemetery ~ Kohima ~ Nagaland ~ India

Recommended Itinerary: Festival of Festivals ~ Hornbill Festival

Advertisements
Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita

The Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army & Memoirs of the World War II – the Guwahati War Cemetery, Guwahati, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

The period of 1939 to 1945 was one of the darkest moments in the history of mankind. It was during this period the world witnessed the Second World War – a state of ‘total war’ where the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. This war brought down the major super powers of the period into ashes. Japan was rocked with the mighty nuclear explosion of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was after the Second World War that the world realized the might of the Americans!

The World War II might have brought down the will of the Germans and Japanese to be the might of the World but it to be mentioned that all wars lead to destruction of devastating proportion. The World War II too led to the same fate and millions of people were killed around the world that included the soldiers of the Army who laid down their lives to bring peace to the World. The bodies of these brave soldiers were laid to rest across various cemeteries through the World and one of such is the Guwahati War Cemetery that was built and is maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Located in the heart of the largest city of Assam ~ Guwahati, this cemetery has about 500 burials mostly of British soldiers who laid their lives during World War II.

To give a brief history of the Guwahati War Cemetery, it was started during the World War II, for burials from several military hospitals in the region. Soldiers and workers who couldn’t make it after fighting the enemy and building the epic Stilwell road were laid to rest here. Later, other graves were brought in by the Army Graves service from military cemeteries in Sylhet and Amari Bari and civil cemeteries in Nagaon, Mohachara and Guwahati for permanent maintenance. Some graves were later also brought from isolated sites in present-day Mizoram, Coochbehar, Darjeeling, Shillong, Dibrugarh, Lumding, Dinjan, Dhubri etc.

Today, the Guwahati cemetery has 521 graves, which includes:

  • 316 known and 18 unknown graves of soldiers from the United Kingdom
  • 136 known and seven unknown Indian soldiers
  • 4 from Canada
  • 4 from South Africa
  • 1 from New Zealand
  • 2 graves of soldiers whose nationality is unknown
  • 24 graves of Chinese Army soldiers
  • Among the 9 world war cemeteries in India, Guwahati is the only cemetery which has graves of Japanese soldiers (11 of them). The graves were rested peacefully in the cemetery until the Japanese government decided to dig up the graves (on 19th January 2012) and fly them back to Japan so as to give them a formal burial in their native country.

The 11 soldiers of Japanese forces who died in World War II were Lance Corporal Miyata Kotsuo (died on September 13, 1944) and 10 soldiers — Komatsutomoshige (September 8, 1944), Morata Doshu ( September 10, 1944), Yamado Kesakti (September 5, 1944), Okamoto (January 8, 1945), Kito Zawo (September 2, 1944), Ikdmiraisao ( September 2, 1944), Shotasaburo (August 31, 1944), Ishiwara Hiroja (no date mentioned), Urata Yotaka (August 8, 1944) and Hachivetsuyoshi (November 25, 1944).

And truly mentioned in one of the quotes of the cemetery –

‘These graves bear silent testimony to those soldiers, unlisted workers and laborers who ventured into Virgin jungle amid blistering heat and laid down their lives in the line of duty during the Second World War. Whilst part of all forces against the Imperial Japanese Army. THEIR NAME LIVETH FOREVER MORE

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to Witness History and Relive the Memoirs of the World War II – the Guwahati War Cemetery, Guwahati, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com 

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
The Guwahati War Cemetery in Assam

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
The Guwahati War Cemetery of World War II ~ 1939 – 1945

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
An Airman’s burial at the Guwahati War Cemetery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
The Guwahati War Cemtery in Assam

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
Neatly aligned burials of the Soldiers at the Guwahati War Cemtery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
Neatly placed burials of soldiers at the Guwahati War Cemetery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
The Guwahati War Cemetery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
May their brave souls Rest in Peace ~ the Guwahati War Cemetery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
Burials of British Soldiers at the Guwahati War Cemetery Assam

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
Burial at the Guwahati War Cemetery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
Burials of Brave Soldiers of the World War II at the Guwahati War Cemetery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
The Guwahati War Cemetery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
The Graves of the Brave Soldiers at the Guwahati War Cemetery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
The Guwahati War Cemetery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery Assam, World War II North East India, Digboi War Cemetery Assam, The Stiwell Road Assam, Lake of No Return, Ledo Air Strip, Burma Campaign, General Hospital Margherita
The Guwahati War Cemetery is built and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Guwahati War Cemetery 15.jpg
Burials at the Guwahati War Cemetery

To plan your visit to the Guwahati War Cemetery visit: www.jungleideas.com

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India

World War II, Stilwell Road, Margherita and the American Connection – the 20th General Hospital, Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

The period of 1939 to 1945 was one of the darkest moments in the history of mankind. It was during this period the world witnessed the Second World War – a state of ‘total war’ where the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. This war brought down the major super powers of the period into ashes. Japan was rocked with the mighty nuclear explosion of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was after the Second World War that the world realized the might of the Americans!

On our journey to bring forth to the World the lost history of the State of Assam and it’s connection with the World during the World War II, we reached the banks of the River Dehing at the tinsel town of Margherita in the north eastern region of India. Our curiosity and interest this time was to find the remains of the 20th General Hospital that was built during the World War II  to treat the sick and wounded American soldiers who were on the mission to built one of the most challenging roads across the dense jungles of the Dehing Patkai – the Stilwell (Ledo) Road. The Stilwell Road was built in 1942 under the able guidance of Major General Vinegar Joe Stilwell of the U S Army and its purpose was to restore communication with China after the Imperial Japanese Army had cut supply across the Burma Road. At the time of the War, the engineers of the American army were desperately cutting this new route also called the Ledo Road across the Patkai Mountains for the supply of armed troops, military supplies and food. They had to fight the Japanese resistance as well as bulldoze their way across the dense jungles of the Patkai Mountain Range. Injuries and Casulaities were common and the wounded were brought back to Margherita where they were treated at the 20th General Hospital. The hospital also cared for Chinese soldiers who were serving as screen when the road was pushed forward.

The 20th General Hospital was formed in 1940 when the Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) was asked by the Surgeon General of the United States to organize an Army hospital unit to care for the Allied wounded in the Burma-India theater. But, the unit did not receive orders to leave for Camp Clairbone, Louisiana, until May 15, 1942. It was in March 1943 that the team of qualified doctors and nurses reached Margherita.

When the staff members of the 20th General first arrived in Margherita, there were only three small buildings with concrete floors, tin roofs and open fronts, as well as a group of bamboo huts with dirt floors and lights showing through thatched roofs. But, when the hospital was finally built fully several months later, it had transformed into a first-rate 2500-bed hospital, with 148 buildings covering one and half square miles. It became the largest hospital in the China-India-Burma theater. It also received a rating of “Superior” – the highest possible in annual general inspections.

Approximately 110 nurses and 600 enlisted men comprised this University of Pennsylvania’s hospital unit. Colonel Elias Cooley, a regular Army officer and a graduate of Philadelphia’s Jefferson Medical College, was in command. Lieutenant Colonel Isidor Ravdin, Professor of Surgery at Penn and an authority on the use of blood plasma and sulfa drugs, was the head of the surgical service. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Fitz-Hugh Jr., Clinical Professor of Medicine at Penn, headed the Medical Service. Most of the medic personnel were drawn from Penn faculty, and many of its nurses came from the Philadelphia General, Penn, Presbyterian, Episcopal and Bryn Mawr hospitals.

It was difficult for the Americans to acclimatize and perform well in a region with 120 inches of rainfall per year, humid summers and cold winters. However, with little paraphernalia and with none of the personal comforts to which they are accustomed, they were able to establish a complete hospital unit which contributed not only to the health of the Allied soldiers, but also to advancement of medical science. Beginning with a few shacks, they ended with a fully equipped modern hospital, provided with laboratories, x-ray and blood storage facilities and all other necessities of medical and surgical practice. It was filled almost from the beginning beyond its rated capacity of 1000 beds. At one time, it actually sheltered 2560 patients. During the entire period of activity, it received altogether 73,000 patients, with only a few more than 300 deaths form all cases.

Since the staff at the hospital had strong academic backgrounds, the hospital became a center for weekly professional conferences attended by American, British and Indian officers from other medical installations. Some 100 important medical papers and scientific reports were produced by the 20th General Hospital, including those on scrub typhus and ophthalmology.

The 20th General Hospital was cited by many for its outstanding work. These include Lord Louis Mountbatten, General Vinegar Joe Stillwell, the Commanding Generals of the 1st and the 6th Chinese Armies, etc. The hospital won praise and personal gratitude from Lord Louis Mountbatten. Mountbatten had suffered a painful and serious injury when a low-hanging section of dead bamboo struck him in the eye, causing a hemorrhage, as he drove a jeep along a jungle trail in the North Burma front. He was flown into the hospital where Dr. (Major) Harold Scheie performed delicate treatment to save his sight. Mountbatten lay flat on his back with his eyes bandaged for five days. Afterwards, Scheie accompanied the commander to Delhi and looked after ehe injured eye during the convalescent period. Mountbatten and Dr. Scheie (who died on March 5, 1990) became life long friends. It was Mountbatten who, in August 1972, dedicated the Scheie Eye Institute in Philadephia.

General Raymond Kelser of the Army Veterinary Corps reported to the US Surgeon General Norman Kirk that “the 20th General Hospital would be outstanding anywhere in the world and is the equal of university hospitals”.

As fighting receded from the Assam-Burma region, the Army began to withdraw officers and men needed in other fronts. The hospital closed its medical services in December, 1945, and was decommissioned on December 27.

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to witness the memoirs of the World War II, Stilwell Road, Margherita and the American Connection – the 20th General Hospital, Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Reference: ‘The Philadelphia – Margherita Connection’ – Mr. Jugal Kalita 

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India

General Vinegar Joe Stilwell who commanded the army of soldiers who built the Impossible – the Stilwell Road across Dehing Patkai

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Entrance to the Grand 20th General Hospital at Margherita during World War II. Image Source: researchgate.net

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Nurse Quarters of the 20th General Hospital at Margherita during the World War II. Image Source: cbi-theater.com

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Remains of the 20th General Hospital of the World War II at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Remains of the 20th General Hospital of the World War II at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Remains of the 20th General Hospital of the World War II at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Remains of the 20th General Hospital of the World War II at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Remains of the 20th General Hospital of the World War II at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Lake of No Return, India's Bermuda Triangle, India Burma Border, Pangsau Pass Festival, Stilwell Road India
The historic Stilwell Road built during World War II by the American Army under the able guidance of General Vinegar Joe Stilwell

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Lake of No Return, India's Bermuda Triangle, India Burma Border, Pangsau Pass Festival, Stilwell Road India
The Pansau pass at the border of India and the Republic of the Union of Mynamar

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

 

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India

The History of the Assam Railways & Trading Company (AR&T Company) and Asia’s oldest Plywood Factory ‘The AR&T Plywood Industries’ at Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

A quaint town located amidst the green hills and the lush tea gardens in the extreme north-eastern corner of the country speaks of a legendary history which in due time has lost its grandeur. In our quest to relive these moments of the past, Jungleideas narrates to you this story of the Assam Railways & Trading Company (AR&T Company) and Asia’s oldest Plywood Factory ‘The AR&T Plywood Industries’ at Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

The AR&T company was established on 30th July 1881, with a prime focus on harnessing the undiscovered potentials of natural and mineral resources in the blessed lands of Assam.  The credited of establishing this company goes to two prominent people of the erstwhile ‘British Raj’ in India – Dr. John Berry White and Mr. Benjamin Piercy. Dr. John Berry White, a Civil Surgeon, played a very significant role in the early development of the Assam’s mineral resources including the opening of the Makum Coalfields. Mr. Benjamin Piercy, on the other hand was a Civil Engineer from Britain who had to his credit, the establishment of major lengths of Railway Connectivity across the British Empire.

The contribution of the Ar&T company to the initial development of the Indian industries had been immense which had begun by the establishment of the pioneer Tea and Steamer companies in India. It was the first company to establish a full fledged railway route across the State of Assam in the form of the Dibru Sadiya Railway. The coal mines and collieries were later established in Assam in 1884-85. At the same time, five steamers and sixteen flats were brought into service on the rivers. Oil was struck in 1889 and ten years years later the Assam Oil Company was formed. Sawmills were established at Margherita and the Brickworks at Ledo. The Makum (Assam) Tea Company came into being in 1892 and the Namdang Tea Company in 1916, to which, a few years later, was added the Bogapani Tea Estate. This was all achieved under the able founders of the AR&T Company and their  able guidance. But it was in 1924, that the Company built the Margherita Plywood Factory for the manufacture of three-ply chests that made the AR&T Company one of the pioneers of this industry in India!

During the establishment of these industries across the Makum district of Assam a pressing need of quality timber was aroused. Timber also became a prime necessity in the planning of rail routes and building of the Margherita and Doom Doomba bridges. Then again there was also a sufficient need in the coal mines. This demand of Timber led to the establishment of the first Sawmill on the south bank of the Dehing River near Margherita Station, conveniently placed for the Margherita Bridge and the collieries which for sonic years continued to absorb a major part of the output. Public demand at that time was limited mainly to tea box shook made of simul.

Although the art of veneering was practiced from early times, it was not mull the introduction of rotary cutting of veneers that the commercial possibilities of plywood were apparent. Weight for weight, plywood resists the strains of ordinary use to a much greater extent than solid boards. It keeps its size and shape better and is less liable to saturation. For these reasons, it has been widely adopted for use where lightness and strength are required, as in packing cases and especially tea chests. ‘Til this time, tea was packed in boxes of swan timber, known in the trade as shook and each box weighed nearly twice the modern three-ply chest.

This new discovery prompted the Directors of the Company to set up the Plywood factory at Margherita and the necessary machinery was ordered in 1922. Production began in 1924, and plywood boxes marketed under the name “Margherita” achieved a great success. Production continued and gradually lead to a total output of approximately five million square feet a year in the recent years ’til the modern day timber felling norms led to an complete halt of the production in 1996.

Although closing onto almost a hundred years since its inception this plywood factory still has machinery and equipment from Germany and Italy that are operational ’til today.

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to witness  the History of the Assam Railways and Trading Company (AR and T Company) and Asia’s oldest Plywood Factory ‘The AR and T Plywood Industries’ at Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
The Centenary year celebration of the AR and T Company at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
The Administrative Office of the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
BARN and Co. Limited Tank manufactured in 1922 at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Splicing Machinery of the Ruckle Company at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Beckner and Van Hullen machinery at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Cremone Peeler by CREMONA of Italy at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Cremona Peeling Equipment by CREMO Italy at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
CREMONA Machinery at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
CREMONA Slicer at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
RUCKLE Machinery at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Remains of the Shed at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Plywood Machinery at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Machinery at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Wood Preservation Plant at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Remains of the Shed at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Remains of the Shed at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
Remains of the Shed at the Asia’s Oldest Plywood Factory of the AR and T Company at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Plywood factory Asia History, Tipong Coal Mining, Tirap Coal Mining, The Historic Stilwell Road, Digboi Oil Industry Assam, Makum Coal Fields, Coal Museum India
The AR and T Company’s School established in 1938 at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your visit: Memoirs of the World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India

The Centenary Oil Museum at the Legendary Oil town of Assam – ‘DIGBOI’, home to ‘Asia’s oldest Oil Refinery’ and the ‘Oldest Operational Oil Well in the World’, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

A quaint town located amidst the green hills and the lush tea gardens in the extreme north-eastern corner of the country speaks of a legendary history which in due time has started to lose its grandeur. In our quest to relive these moments of the past, Jungleideas narrates to you this story of the Legendary Oil Town of Assam – Digboi (home to ‘Asia’s oldest Oil Refinery’ and the ‘Oldest Operational Oil Well in the World’).

The history of Oil in India began to unfold in the early 1800’s at the head of the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam. It was a vast area of rain-forest surrounded by a semi-circle of high mountains and inhabited, in its more liveable parts, by the Singphos, Khamtis, Phakials and other tribes. Into this beautiful yet savage region, with all the hidden an overt dangers of the jungle, men of daring ventured. They came with different agenda; soldiers to ensure tranquillity and safety at the outposts of the British Empire, civil servants with the assignments of various nature, explorers looking for coal and timber and the exclusive tea-leaf. It was during this time that many came across oil seepages and fortunately for posterity, recorded such instances in their dairies and memoirs.

As per the books of history it was in 1866 that Mr. Goodenough of McKillop, Stewart and Company was making an attempt to utilize the petroleum of Assam. He was granted certain rights over a large tract of land on both sides of the Dehing river, from Jaipur to the Noa Dehing. Oil was struck in one hole on March 26th 1867 at 118 feet, as many as eight holes having put down about this time. These results though didn’t allow Mr. Goodenough to establish a petroleum industry.

Attribute of setting up the Oil industry at Digboi goes to the Assam Railways and Trading Company (AR&T). It was under the guidance of Dr. John Barry White that on October 19th 1889, oil was struck at a depth of 178 feet at Digboi. From here started the journey of Oil Industry in India that speaks of a Legend holding its firm base at Digboi – the Legendary Oil town of Assam!

This Legendary history of the Digboi Oil Story is well preserved at the Digboi Centenary Oil Museum which is built on the fringes of Digboi Well No.1 from which oil is still gently seeping. Inaugurated in January 2002, this museum is a treasure house of memorabilia of the past, tools and equipment of the yesteryear s and elegant wall panels depicting the history of Oil refining in India. While an air raid shelter of the World War II greets visitors at the entrance of the museum, the steel rig of Digboi Well No. 1 stands as a silent sentinel of excellence adjacent to the museum building.

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to visit the Centenary Oil Museum at the Legendary Oil town of Assam – ‘DIGBOI’, home to ‘Asia’s oldest Oil Refinery’ and the ‘Oldest Operational Oil Well in the World’, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
The Air Shelter of the Second World War at the Digboi Oil Museum

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Welcome to the Centenary Oil Museum at Digboi, Assam, India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

WP_20151204_10_48_07_Pro
The Vintage view of Digboi Refinery with major landmarks kept on display at he centenary oil museum at Digboi in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
A historic ford card at a display of the colonial British Era at Digboi Oil town in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
The Discover Oil Well No. 1 from where oil was first commercially drilled at Digboi in October 1889

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

WP_20151204_10_53_20_Pro
An Vintage Vehicle on Display at the Digboi Oil Museum

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi

Memoirs of the World War II – the Digboi War Cemetery, Digboi Oil Town, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

The period of 1939 to 1945 was one of the darkest moments in the history of mankind. It was during this period the world witnessed the Second World War – a state of ‘total war’ where the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. This war brought down the major super powers of the period into ashes. Japan was rocked with the mighty nuclear explosion of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was after the Second World War that the world realized the might of the Americans!

The World War II might have brought down the will of the Germans and Japanese to be the might of the World but it to be mentioned that all wars lead to destruction of devastating proportion. The World War II too led to the same fate and millions of people were killed around the world that included the soldiers of the Army who laid down their lives to bring peace to the World. The bodies of these brave soldiers were laid to rest across various cemeteries through the World and one of such is the Digboi War Cemetery that was built and is maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Located very near to the ‘Legendary Oil town of Assam’ – Digboi, this cemetery has about 200 burials mostly of British soldiers who laid their lives during World War II.

A little to elaborate, during the Second World War, Digboi, in the north-eastern corner of the state of Assam, near the Burmese border and on the road to Ledo, was on the lines of communication, and a military hospital was established there. Digboi War Cemetery was started for burials from the hospital and at the end of the war contained 70 burials. Later, the Army Graves Service brought in further graves from burial grounds in Panitola, Jorhat, Margherita, Tinsukia, Ledo, and as well as from the US Military Cemetery at Shingvuoiyang in Burma where permanent maintenance could not be assured. Originally the cemetery stood on a small spur rising sharply from the main road, but an earthquake in 1950 caused cracks here with one fissure extending the full length of the cemetery. Subsequent landslides occasioned by heavy rains, particularly in 1953, so endangered the cemetery that it became necessary to move the graves to the present site which was not likely to be affected by erosion. The cemetery now contains 200 Commonwealth burials of the Second World War.

And truly mentioned in one of the quotes of the cemetery –

‘These graves bear silent testimony to those soldiers, unlisted workers and labourers who ventured into Virgin jungle amid blistering heat and laid down their lives in the line of duty during the Second World War. Whilst part of all forces against the Imperial Japanese Army. THEIR NAME LIVETH FOREVER MORE

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to Witness History and Relive the Memoirs of the World War II – the Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Town, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The neatly arranged graves of the soldiers at the Green Digboi War Cemetery. Image Anil Paudel

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Entrance to the World War II burial ground of the Digboi War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Digboi Second World War Cemetery has been built and is maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The neatly arranged graves of the soldiers at the Green Digboi War Cemetery in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The neatly arranged graves of the soldiers at the Green Digboi War Cemetery in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The neatly arranged graves of the soldiers at the Green Digboi War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The neatly arranged graves of the soldiers at the Green Digboi War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Graves of the Burials of the Brave Soldiers of the British Army who died in the Second World War at Digboi Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Graves of the Burials of the Brave Soldiers of the British Army who died in the Second World War at Digboi Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Graves of the Burials of the Brave Soldiers of the British Army who died in the Second World War at Digboi Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Graves of the Burials of the Brave Soldiers of the British Army who died in the Second World War at Digboi Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Awesome Assam, Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Refinery, Digboi Oil Museum
The Welcome Gate at the Digboi War Cemetery ~ Digboi ~ Assam ~ India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Awesome Assam, Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Refinery, Digboi Oil Museum
Distant view of the Center Cross at the Digboi War Cemetery ~ Digboi ~ Assam ~ India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Awesome Assam, Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Refinery, Digboi Oil Museum
The Well maintained graves at the Digboi War Cemetery ~ Digboi ~ Assam ~ India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Awesome Assam, Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Refinery, Digboi Oil Museum
The Center Cross at the Digboi War Cemetery ~ Digboi ~ Assam ~ India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Awesome Assam, Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Refinery, Digboi Oil Museum
The Graves at the Digboi War Cemetery ~ Digboi ~ Assam ~ India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India

The History of Coal Mining at Makum Coalfields, Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

The history of coal mining in the region of Assam dates back to the later part of the 19th century by the erstwhile Assam Railway and Trading Company (AR&T). A Civil Surgeon, Dr. John Barry White, while founding the Assam Railway and Trading Company played a very significant role in the early development of Assam’s mineral resources including the opening of the Makum Coalfields. Mr. George Turner, a mining engineer from South Staffordshire, also played an important role to transform the jungles and coal outcrops in the area into prosperous collieries in a few years time. Skilled practical miners were first brought from abroad to train Indian Workmen in the “South Staffordshire” method of wining thick coal seams.

The first mining of coal was started in 1882 at Ledo by Railway’s Engineers, when the erstwhile AR&T Company was laying its own Meter Gauge line. In order to increase the output of coal, the following collieries were started: at Tikak (1884), Namdang (1896), Tirap (1904), Baragolai (1909), Tipong (1924) and Namdang Dip (1904). The establishment of these mines were of great importance to the Tea Industry of Assam which hitherto was dependent upon wood fuel. Some indication of the nature of the Makum Coalfields are interpreted in the words of George Turner in 1895:

“Coal has been proved in these hills over the whole length of the Company’s area, and as coal of very nearly similar description is found in the hills twenty miles eastward and thirty miles westward, there can be no doubt of the existence of a large coalfield. The coal in the hills is found at various heights from Zero in the plains lip to 1000 feet above them. The hills conform in longitudinal direction with the strike of the rocks, although they do not form a continuous ridge, being cut through several streams. The coal has a high dip towards the hills, the average being about 1 in 3, but sometimes it is as high as 1 in 2”

All these erstwhile company mines were Nationalized on 1st May, 1973 and vested with the Central Government of India. At present, the entire coal production of North Eastern coalfields comes from Makum coalfield of Margherita Area, comprising of six mine of which Tipong, Ledo/Lachit Khani and Baragolai are underground mines (temporarily suspended due to DGMS violations) and Tirap, Ledo and Tikak are opencast mines. Both productivity and safety in these mines had improved significantly after nationalization.

Coal mining in Assam in extremely difficult. The area represents a typically folded and faulted mountain belt of Tertiary strata bounded by thrusts. the problem frequently encountered are steep inclination of coal seams, complex seam structure like inter-banding, irregular with thickness variations. The seams are highly gassy,susceptibility to spontaneous combustion, friable coal and poor roof and floor conditions.. The Chief Inspector of mines, in his annual report of 1929 referred to these coalfields as being “where the worst natural conditions of all the coal mines in India have to be faced.”

Certain methods of Underground Coal Mining in Makum Coalfields:

  • Bhaska Method: Blocks of inclined and thick coal seams are developed on Board and Pillar System. The junction of a level gallery and a dip-rise gallery is then widened and heightened by drilling and blasting to form a dome shaped void which is self supported. The dome is kept on widening and heightening till the roof coal starts caving down automatically. As in this method the recovery is low it is no longer practiced.
  • Tipong Method: Very similar to the Bhaska method of mining in the Tipong Method, between two sub levels, a funnel is made in coal along the dip-rise gallery which is kept unsupported. Then a slot is cut from Hanging Wall to Foot Wall along the dip-rise direction with a limited width to provide a free face. Towards outbye of the slot, rings of drill-holes are made and blasted to make the broken coal flow onto the funnel.
  • Descending Shield Method: A Coordinated effort with engineers of erstwhile USSR, this method was introduced in 1983-84. A Shield of timber beams, reinforced with Steel, is made and placed horizontally from Hanging Wall to Foot Wall and coal is blasted below the same to make it flow downward. The Shield descends downward making a canopy above the work-persons face. This practice has been discontinued now.
  • Flexible roofing method: Here, in place of a shield, artificial roofing is made out of MS-strips and wire netting which is hinged at the Hanging Wall at the top of the panel. Blasting and loading is done below artificial roofing. Roof rocks cave down over the artificial roofing and do not get mixed with the blasted coal. Likewise, the whole block is de-coaled below the artificial roofing.

The History of Coal Mining in Assam is put up on an elaborate display at India’s only Coal Museum at Margherita where visitors get to experience the thrill of underground coal mining. Also put up on display are Steam Locomotives built by W G Bagnall of Stafford in the late 1800’s. Operational Steam locomotives of the likes of ‘796’ and ‘DAVID’ are to be found at Tipong Colliery. The Open cast mining experience can be enjoyed at Tirap Colliery that practices the traditional Shovel-Dumper style Open-cast Coal Mining and is a located a little while away from Margherita.

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to witness the History of Coal Mining at Makum Coalfields, Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Entrance of the Namdang Coal Mine as on 1948

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Setup of an Underground mine at India’s only coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Underground Coal Mining Setup at India’s only Coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Underground Coal Mining Setup at India’s only Coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Namdang Opencast Quarry as in 1901

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Rare Pictures of Tirap Bridge and the Stilwell Road of World War II at Ledo

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Dr John Barry White was the pioneering of Coal and Oil industry of Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Coal Miners operate at underground depths of Upto 3 kilometers in length to extract coal from the depth of coal mines

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The John Steam locomotove by WG Bagnall of Stafford on display at India’s Coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Hassang Steam locomotove by WG Bagnall of Stafford on display at India’s Coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Shelly Steam locomotove by WG Bagnall of Stafford on display at India’s Coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Open Cast Mining by Volvo Earth Movers at Tirap Opencast Colliery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Open cast mining at the present day at Tirap Colliery near Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Open Cast Mining by Volvo Earth Movers at Tirap Opencast Colliery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Operational Steam Locomotives at Tipong Underground Mining Colliery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Operational Steam Locomotives at Tipong Underground Mining Colliery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India

Map of Coal Deposits across the Sates of North East India in Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal and Nagaland

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Map of Coal Mines of Tipong, Tikak, Namdang, Ledo and Makum Coalfields

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II