The Capital of the Muttack Kingdom and the present Commercial Capital of Assam – Tinsukia, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Many of our readers might have heard about the State of Assam in India and some might have even visited to sight the pride of Assam at Kaziranga – the ‘One Horned Rhinoceros of Assam’. It is no doubt that people would carry back one memoir from Assam that this is indeed a beautiful State! It is our quest to bring forth to the World that Assam’s beauty is not only limited to Kaziranga and the spectacular drive from Guwahati to it. Our State has many a story to narrate to showcase its rich culture and history. From the legends of the Kamakhya Temple to the Architectural Marvels of the Ahom Dynasty at Sivasagar. From the finest Tea Estates in the World to the its history in playing a pivotal role in the victory of the Allied Forces in World War II at the Stilwell Road. From the Grandeur of its five (5) exotic National Parks to the Rich Cultural Heritage of the World’s Largest Inhabited River Island at Majuli. From the Silk Town (Manchester of the East) of the World at Suwalkuchi to the World’s smallest river Island at Umananda. From Asia’s Oldest Refinery and Plywood Factory at Digboi to India’s largest Road Bridge and Road cum Railway Bridge at Sadiya and Dibrugarh. From the always welcoming Tribes of Assam to the perfect Ecotourism Getaways and Tribal Cottages, the journey across this State will indeed leave any visitor mesmerized and not to forget, we at Jungleideas will ensure to adopt all possible measures for your visit here to be the most memorable experience of your lifetime!

During your journey across Assam one must halt is at the Commercial Capital of Assam – the busy town of Tinsukia. Although a quick glance would seem it to be just like a normal modern day city; this place has been an important landmark in the history of Assam. Tinsukia was the capital of the one of the mighty empires of Assam after the Ahoms – the Muttack Kingdom founded by Swargadeo Sarbananda Singha. During his rule Swargadeo Sarbananda Singha instructed his Minister Gopinath Barbaruah to dig a triangular pond which later came to be known as Tinikunia (meaning Triangular) Pukhuri (meaning Pond). In the year 1884, a Railway station was constructed near this pond, when the historic Dibru-Sadiya Rail line was laid by the Assam Railways and Trading Company (AR&T) Limited during the British Raj. This Station was named as Tinsukia and since then this has been known as Tinsukia. The railway junction at the Tinsukia Station is the largest in North East India. Tinsukia proves to be an important connecting point on your journey to Digboi (Oil town of Assam), Sadya (India’s Longest Bridge), Margherita (the Coal Queen of Assam), Stilwell Road and the State of Arunachal Pradesh (the Namdapha National Park and the Pansau Pass).

Places of interest in and around Tinsukia and its onward journeys are:

  • Railway Heritage Park and Museum – Highlights the history of the Dibru Sadiya Railway and displays the Steam Engines that built the World’s Second Largest Rail Network operated under a single management – the Indian Railways
  • The Dhola Sadiya Bridge – At a length of 9.15 kilometers the Dhola-Sadiya Bridge at Sadiya Ghat is the Longest Bridge in India!
  • The National Park of Dibru-Saikhowa – known for its population of White winged wood duck in its natural habitat and also for its bright colored wild horses known as Feral Horses. The only National Park of Assam that offers a River Cruise to view its Grandeur.
  • Borajan Wildlife Sanctuary – Some rare and endangered animals of this sanctuary are Hoolock Gibbon, Capped Langur, Slow Loris, Water Buffaloes, Gangetic river dolphin, etc.
  • Wathai Heritage Tea Bungalow – An imperial Bungalow of the British Era built around the majestic Tea Gardens of Assam
  • The Tilinga Mandir or the Bell Temple at Bordubi
  • The Nao Pukhuri dug during the rule of King Swargadeo Sarbananda Singha in 1791
  • Legendary Oil Town of Digboi – Home to Asia’s Oldest Refinery and the World’s Oldest Operational Oil Well. The World War II cemetery built and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Mission is also at Digboi. Digboi also one of the best golf courses in India and many colonial Bungalows of the British Era.
  • Coal Queen of Assam ‘Margherita’ – Margherita has some of the oldest coal mines in the World. India’s only Coal Museum and Asia’s oldest Plywood Factory is located here. Margherita is home to some of the Oldest and Legendary Tribes of North East India. The Singpho Eco Lodge here is one of the best destinations in North East India to experience Ecotourism with the Singpho Tribes. The Ketetong Village here is home to many other principal tribes of North East India. An important trade center of the British Era this place has many Heritage British Bungalows at the nearby Tea gardens and Coal India Limited. Some of the Oldest Operational Steam Locomotives in the World of the likes of David, 796, John etc. are stationed at the Tipong Colliery. Remains of one of the best American Military Hospitals i.e. the 20th General Hospital is located at Margherita
  • Namdapha National Park – Located at Deban in Arunachal Pradesh, the Namdapha National Park is the third (3rd) largest National Park in India and is home to the Big Four Cat Species of the likes of Snow leopards, Clouded leopards, Common leopards and Tigers
  • Digboi Golf Course – One of the finest in India
  • Ledo Club – the Office of the First Governor General of India Lord Mountbatten and the place where the Notorious Dictator of Uganda Idi Amin served as a butler during the Burma Campaign of World War II
  • The 20th General Hospital at Magherita – One of the Finest of the American Army
  • The Historic Stilwell Road built by the American Army during World War II
  • The Lake of No Return and the Pangsau Pass aka the Hell’s Pass

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to visit the Capital of the Muttack Kingdom and the present Commercial Capital of Assam – Tinsukia, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Relive the Grandeur of the British Raj

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Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India

World War II, Stilwell Road, Margherita and the American Connection – the 20th General Hospital, Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

The period of 1939 to 1945 was one of the darkest moments in the history of mankind. It was during this period the world witnessed the Second World War – a state of ‘total war’ where the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. This war brought down the major super powers of the period into ashes. Japan was rocked with the mighty nuclear explosion of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was after the Second World War that the world realized the might of the Americans!

On our journey to bring forth to the World the lost history of the State of Assam and it’s connection with the World during the World War II, we reached the banks of the River Dehing at the tinsel town of Margherita in the north eastern region of India. Our curiosity and interest this time was to find the remains of the 20th General Hospital that was built during the World War II  to treat the sick and wounded American soldiers who were on the mission to built one of the most challenging roads across the dense jungles of the Dehing Patkai – the Stilwell (Ledo) Road. The Stilwell Road was built in 1942 under the able guidance of Major General Vinegar Joe Stilwell of the U S Army and its purpose was to restore communication with China after the Imperial Japanese Army had cut supply across the Burma Road. At the time of the War, the engineers of the American army were desperately cutting this new route also called the Ledo Road across the Patkai Mountains for the supply of armed troops, military supplies and food. They had to fight the Japanese resistance as well as bulldoze their way across the dense jungles of the Patkai Mountain Range. Injuries and Casulaities were common and the wounded were brought back to Margherita where they were treated at the 20th General Hospital. The hospital also cared for Chinese soldiers who were serving as screen when the road was pushed forward.

The 20th General Hospital was formed in 1940 when the Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) was asked by the Surgeon General of the United States to organize an Army hospital unit to care for the Allied wounded in the Burma-India theater. But, the unit did not receive orders to leave for Camp Clairbone, Louisiana, until May 15, 1942. It was in March 1943 that the team of qualified doctors and nurses reached Margherita.

When the staff members of the 20th General first arrived in Margherita, there were only three small buildings with concrete floors, tin roofs and open fronts, as well as a group of bamboo huts with dirt floors and lights showing through thatched roofs. But, when the hospital was finally built fully several months later, it had transformed into a first-rate 2500-bed hospital, with 148 buildings covering one and half square miles. It became the largest hospital in the China-India-Burma theater. It also received a rating of “Superior” – the highest possible in annual general inspections.

Approximately 110 nurses and 600 enlisted men comprised this University of Pennsylvania’s hospital unit. Colonel Elias Cooley, a regular Army officer and a graduate of Philadelphia’s Jefferson Medical College, was in command. Lieutenant Colonel Isidor Ravdin, Professor of Surgery at Penn and an authority on the use of blood plasma and sulfa drugs, was the head of the surgical service. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Fitz-Hugh Jr., Clinical Professor of Medicine at Penn, headed the Medical Service. Most of the medic personnel were drawn from Penn faculty, and many of its nurses came from the Philadelphia General, Penn, Presbyterian, Episcopal and Bryn Mawr hospitals.

It was difficult for the Americans to acclimatize and perform well in a region with 120 inches of rainfall per year, humid summers and cold winters. However, with little paraphernalia and with none of the personal comforts to which they are accustomed, they were able to establish a complete hospital unit which contributed not only to the health of the Allied soldiers, but also to advancement of medical science. Beginning with a few shacks, they ended with a fully equipped modern hospital, provided with laboratories, x-ray and blood storage facilities and all other necessities of medical and surgical practice. It was filled almost from the beginning beyond its rated capacity of 1000 beds. At one time, it actually sheltered 2560 patients. During the entire period of activity, it received altogether 73,000 patients, with only a few more than 300 deaths form all cases.

Since the staff at the hospital had strong academic backgrounds, the hospital became a center for weekly professional conferences attended by American, British and Indian officers from other medical installations. Some 100 important medical papers and scientific reports were produced by the 20th General Hospital, including those on scrub typhus and ophthalmology.

The 20th General Hospital was cited by many for its outstanding work. These include Lord Louis Mountbatten, General Vinegar Joe Stillwell, the Commanding Generals of the 1st and the 6th Chinese Armies, etc. The hospital won praise and personal gratitude from Lord Louis Mountbatten. Mountbatten had suffered a painful and serious injury when a low-hanging section of dead bamboo struck him in the eye, causing a hemorrhage, as he drove a jeep along a jungle trail in the North Burma front. He was flown into the hospital where Dr. (Major) Harold Scheie performed delicate treatment to save his sight. Mountbatten lay flat on his back with his eyes bandaged for five days. Afterwards, Scheie accompanied the commander to Delhi and looked after ehe injured eye during the convalescent period. Mountbatten and Dr. Scheie (who died on March 5, 1990) became life long friends. It was Mountbatten who, in August 1972, dedicated the Scheie Eye Institute in Philadephia.

General Raymond Kelser of the Army Veterinary Corps reported to the US Surgeon General Norman Kirk that “the 20th General Hospital would be outstanding anywhere in the world and is the equal of university hospitals”.

As fighting receded from the Assam-Burma region, the Army began to withdraw officers and men needed in other fronts. The hospital closed its medical services in December, 1945, and was decommissioned on December 27.

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to witness the memoirs of the World War II, Stilwell Road, Margherita and the American Connection – the 20th General Hospital, Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Reference: ‘The Philadelphia – Margherita Connection’ – Mr. Jugal Kalita 

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India

General Vinegar Joe Stilwell who commanded the army of soldiers who built the Impossible – the Stilwell Road across Dehing Patkai

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Entrance to the Grand 20th General Hospital at Margherita during World War II. Image Source: researchgate.net

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Nurse Quarters of the 20th General Hospital at Margherita during the World War II. Image Source: cbi-theater.com

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Remains of the 20th General Hospital of the World War II at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Remains of the 20th General Hospital of the World War II at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Remains of the 20th General Hospital of the World War II at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Remains of the 20th General Hospital of the World War II at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Stilwell Road Second World War, Coal Mining in Margherita, Assam Tourism, World War II cemeteries, World War Hospitals India
The Remains of the 20th General Hospital of the World War II at Margherita in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Lake of No Return, India's Bermuda Triangle, India Burma Border, Pangsau Pass Festival, Stilwell Road India
The historic Stilwell Road built during World War II by the American Army under the able guidance of General Vinegar Joe Stilwell

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Lake of No Return, India's Bermuda Triangle, India Burma Border, Pangsau Pass Festival, Stilwell Road India
The Pansau pass at the border of India and the Republic of the Union of Mynamar

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

 

“Relive the Grandeur of the British Raj” – Tour of Upper Assam, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Jungleideas welcomes you to the Tour of Reliving the Grandeur of the British Raj in Assam. The British had come to Assam in the early 1800’s much before the State had gone under the British rule. They had come to seek for alternates to the Tea of China when their Tea trade with China had run into rough weather. It was here in Assam that they discovered the “Camellia Asamica” (better renowned today as the Assam CTC Tea) and in 1839 the Assam Company was incorporated that started producing and exporting the famous Assam Tea).

Gradually, the knowledge of the bountiful lands of Assam reached the ears of the other powerful men of the ‘British Raj’ who visited this land in search of opportunities to explore other availability of natural resources. It was during the visit of Mr. John Berry White, a civil surgeon, who found out the possibility of coal in Assam. Under his able guidance the Makum Coalfield was discovered and coal mines were opened at Tikak (1884), Namdang (1896), Tirap (1904), Baragolai (1909), Tipong (1924) and Namdang Dip Mine (1904). These expeditions also lead to the discovery of Oil when the first Oil well was dug at Digboi on October 19th 1889 resulting in the establishment of Asia’s oldest Oil Refinery at Digboi. Timber requirements were harnessed from the abundant forests at the Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary. Tea exports needed plywood boxes that led to the establishment of Asia’s first Plywood Factory at Margherita. ‘Til this time it was only the British who came here. It was only during the Second World War than Americans came to Assam to setup one of the toughest challenges to beat the Japanese – ‘Building the famous Stilwell Road across the Pangsau Pass (Hell Pass)’. Under the able guidance of General Vinegar Joe Stilwell the Stilwell Road was constructed and it helped in restoring the Allies contact with the Chinese troops that proved as a major step in crushing the Imperial Japanese Army. Traces of American establishment can be found here at the Military Hospital at Margherita.

During your tour to Upper Assam:

  • Enjoy your stay at the heritage Tea Bungalow at Tinsukia/Dibrugarh
  • Visit the Railway Museum at Tinsukia that showcases the establishment of Dibru Sadiya Railway by the British
  • Experience the Grandeur of the Longest Bridge in India ~ the ‘Dhola Sadiya’ Bridge
  • Visit the Oil Refinery and observe History of Oil at Digboi Museum
  • Visit the Coal Mines at Tirap Colliery and Tipong Colliery
  • Tread along the Stilwell Road
  • Visit the Historic Ledo Airstrip and the Lekhapani Railway Station
  • Witness and Indulge in Tea plucking with Tea Garden Tribes at Ledo
  • Visit India’s only Coal Museum at Margherita
  • Spot the centenary old Steam Locomotives by W G Bagnall at Margherita and Tipong
  • Enjoy Ecotourism at its best with the Singpho Tribes of Assam
  • Be a part of the Tour of Reliving the Grandeur of the British Raj powered by Jungleideas

In this tour you will also visit one the best bio diversity spots of India – The National Park of Dibru-Saikhowa that is known for its population of White winged wood duck in its natural habitat and also for its bright colored Wild Horses known as Feral Horses. Some rare and endangered animals of this sanctuary are Hoolock Gibbon, Capped Langur, Slow loris, Water Buffalo, Tiger, Elephant, Gangetic river dolphin, etc.

Tour Itinerary ~

Day 1: Arrive at Dibrugarh Airport. On arrival you will be received by our representative at the airport offering a warm welcome in traditional Assamese style. From the Airport drive to Tinsukia. Check into the Tea Garden Bungalow. In the late afternoon we will visit the Borajan Wildlife Sanctuary at Tinsukia. In the Evening we will visit the Heritage Railway Museum at Tinsukia. Night stay at the Heritage Tea Garden Bungalow.

Day 2: Early morning we will take a tour of the National Park of Dibru Saikhowa aboard a River Cruise. Breakfast/Lunch will be served aboard the River Cruise. After the River Cruise we will visit the ‘Napukhuri’ Pond at Tinsukia that was dug in 1791 and is a popular tourist attraction here. Night stay at a Comfortable Hotel.

Day 3: After breakfast depart to Roing in Arunachal Pradesh. On our journey we will travel over the Longest Bridge in India ~ the ‘Dhola Sadiya’ Bridge on the mighty Brahmaputra River. Check into Tourist Lodge/Eco Cottages at Roing. Evening visit the local market at Roing. Night halt at Tourist Lodge/Eco Cottages at Roing.

Day 4: Early morning we will depart to Mayodia Pass. At an altitude of above 3000 feet Mayodia Pass is one of the toughest motorable roads in North East India. Admire the breath taking beauty of the snow capped mountains at Mayodia and later depart to the Legendary oil town of Digboi. Night stay at a comfortable Guest House.

Day 5: After breakfast we will proceed to see the World War II cemetery at Digboi that has around 200 burials of British Soldiers who laid down their lives during line of duty at the World War II. Later we will depart to the Digboi Museum that will give you an elaborate display of the Oil history of Assam during the British Regime. After lunch we will visit the Digboi Park from where you will get an Excellent view of the Digboi refinery. Evening we will go to Margherita. Night halt at a comfortable Hotel/Guest House and evening Bon fire will be arranged.

Day 6: After breakfast depart to the Faneng Village in Lekhapani to witness the rich culture and traditions of the Tai Phake Tribes of Assam. On our way we will visit the Historic Lekhapani Railway Station. Spend time with the local tribal people and understand their way of living. Our journey will continue to the border of Arunachal Pradesh where we will visit the World War II cemetery at Jairampur. Enjoy traditional Singpho lunch at the Singpho Restaurant in Jagun. On our way back to Margherita we will visit Tipong Colliery and get a glimpse of the Oldest Operational Steam Locomotives in the World here. Visit the Sumi Naga Village at Tipong. Night halt at the Hotel.

Day 7: After Breakfast we will visit the Tirap Colliery to experience open cast coal mining. Later we will visit the International Meditation Center at the Mounglang Buddhist monestary and also visit the Historic Ledo Airstrip. Afternoon lunch will be served at the Singpho Villa Restaurant. In the afternoon we will visit India’s only Coal Museum at Margherita. This museum has many historical artifacts from the Second World War. Visi the remains of the 20th General Hospital at Margherita which was built by the American Army during World War II and was rated as a Class A Hospital of the American Army. Night halt at the Singpho Eco Lodge at Margherita.

Day 8: In the morning we will visit the nearby Singpho village where you will get to experience traditional Singpho life and see the ladies weaving exclusive Singpho handlooms. Enjoy your first hand experience at Tea plucking with the Tea garden tribes of Assam. Later we will visit the remains of the Namdang Colliery at Namdang. Seek blessings at the Muslim Shrine of the Namdang Bibi Majhar. Enjoy your drive along the beautiful roads along the well kept Tea gardens. Drive to Changlang and witness the beauty of Landscape where the clouds kiss the mountains. Late afternoon we will visit the Asia’s first plywood factory at Margherita. Night Halt at the Singpho Eco Lodge.

Day 9: Early morning visit the Buddhist Monastery near the Eco Lodge. After breakfast you will depart to the Dibrugarh Airport for your onward destination. Trip Ends. Bid Adieu.

Image Gallery ~

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Heritage ‘Wathai’ Tea Garden Bungalow at Tinsukia
Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Railway Heritage Park and Museum at Tinsukia
Longest Bridge in India, Bridge on mighty River Brahmaputra, Bogibeel Bridge Dibrugarh Assam, Assam Tourism Operator, Dibru Saikhowa National Park, Dholla Sadiya Bridge at Sadiya Ghat
Aerial view of the Longest Bridge in India – the Dhola-Sadiya Bridge on the mighty river Brahmaputra at Sadiya in Assam
Assam Tea Gardens Tour, Tea Estate holidays in Assam, Assam Fine Tea, Fresh Tea in Assam, Coal Mining in Assam, Assam Ecotourism Homestays and Cottages

The Exotic Tale of Assam Tea – the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Ever heard of the names Hazelbank, Ethelwood, Greenwood and Hautley? Well, these are the ‘exotic names’ of some tea gardens in Assam. The first two gardens, nearly 150 years old, were named by their original owner after his daughters. All these names bring forth the memories of a by-gone era. But one of the most significant names is perhaps that of ‘Cinnamara’, which mentally transmits one of the mid-nineteenth centure when the tea industry had just taken of the ground. The original name of the garden, however, was ‘Cinai-mora’ which means (tea) made by the Chinese.

In the early nineteenth century, the British tea trade with China having run into rough weather, possibilities were being explored by the East India Company of planting tea in the colonies under their regime. The colonists had the first inkling of the existence of the indigenous variety of tea in Assam (Camellia asamica) in 1823 – even before Assam went under the British Rule – when Major Robert Bruce, an adventurer and a trader, had visited Rangpur (the present day Sivasagar), the then capital of the Ahom Kings, on a trade mission. An Assamese nobleman, Moniram Dutta, Borbhandar Borua , popularly known as Moniram Dewan, introduced him to a Singpho tribal chief Beesagam Ningrual, who gave Bruce a few tea plants. Bruce had asked the Chief for some more samples later, but he died the next year and his brother Charles Alexander, to whom Major Bruce must have passed on the information before his death, eventually earned the credit as the discoverer of the local variety of tea in Assam.

When the first ever tea company, the Assam Company, was incorporated in 1839, Moniram served the Company as its Dewan or land officer for some time, although subsequently he left the company to start his own plantations – Connamara and Senglung (now Singlo) where he had engaged the Chinese tea makers and thus the garden Connamara got its name. The ruling British East India Company saw a potential rival in Moniram for their future enterprises, since he was immensely popular among the sections of people. They had pleaded for restoration of the Ahom rulers to the throne and in 1858 he was hanged publicly at Jorhat. His gardens were attached by the Government and were sold in Auction.

Herewith, started the tea trade from Assam under Assam Company, the taste of Assam Tea spread across the globe. Today, Assam is the largest producer of Tea in India. To close this write up I share a quote from an avid tea drinker in England who wrote a hundred years ago –

“And let us bless those sunny lands

So far away across the sea

Whose hills and valleys give fertile birth

To that fair scrub of priceless worth

Which yields each son of Mother Earth

A fragrant cup of Tea”

Jungleideas welcomes to India’s North East to witness the practice of Tea cultivation and Tea processing at Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Tea Tour of Upper Assam

Assam Tea Gardens Tour, Tea Estate holidays in Assam, Assam Fine Tea, Fresh Tea in Assam, Coal Mining in Assam, Assam Ecotourism Homestays and Cottages

The Road across the Margherita Tea Estate that leads to the State of Arunachal Pradesh

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Tea Tour of Upper Assam

Assam Tea Gardens Tour, Tea Estate holidays in Assam, Assam Fine Tea, Fresh Tea in Assam, Coal Mining in Assam, Assam Ecotourism Homestays and Cottages
Tea Workers at the Margherita Tea Garden in Assam who bring to you the flavored cup of your morning tea!

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Tea Tour of Upper Assam

Assam Tea Gardens Tour, Tea Estate holidays in Assam, Assam Fine Tea, Fresh Tea in Assam, Coal Mining in Assam, Assam Ecotourism Homestays and Cottages
The Majestic Tea Gardens near the Singpho Eco Lodge Homestay at Margherita – the ideal Ecotourism Homestay destination in Upper Assam of the Singpho Tribes

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Tea Tour of Upper Assam

Assam Tea Gardens Tour, Tea Estate holidays in Assam, Assam Fine Tea, Fresh Tea in Assam, Coal Mining in Assam, Assam Ecotourism Homestays and Cottages
The flavored CTC Assam Tea that is renowned across the entire World for its freshness and Superb Quality of Taste

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Tea Tour of Upper Assam

Assam Tea, Tea Tour Assam, Tea Gardens Assam, Assam Tea Gardens
The Lush and Green Tea Gardens of the Largest Tea producing area in the World ~ Assam. Image Credits: Mr. Rajib Saikia

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Tea Tour of Upper Assam

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India

The Centenary Oil Museum at the Legendary Oil town of Assam – ‘DIGBOI’, home to ‘Asia’s oldest Oil Refinery’ and the ‘Oldest Operational Oil Well in the World’, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

A quaint town located amidst the green hills and the lush tea gardens in the extreme north-eastern corner of the country speaks of a legendary history which in due time has started to lose its grandeur. In our quest to relive these moments of the past, Jungleideas narrates to you this story of the Legendary Oil Town of Assam – Digboi (home to ‘Asia’s oldest Oil Refinery’ and the ‘Oldest Operational Oil Well in the World’).

The history of Oil in India began to unfold in the early 1800’s at the head of the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam. It was a vast area of rain-forest surrounded by a semi-circle of high mountains and inhabited, in its more liveable parts, by the Singphos, Khamtis, Phakials and other tribes. Into this beautiful yet savage region, with all the hidden an overt dangers of the jungle, men of daring ventured. They came with different agenda; soldiers to ensure tranquillity and safety at the outposts of the British Empire, civil servants with the assignments of various nature, explorers looking for coal and timber and the exclusive tea-leaf. It was during this time that many came across oil seepages and fortunately for posterity, recorded such instances in their dairies and memoirs.

As per the books of history it was in 1866 that Mr. Goodenough of McKillop, Stewart and Company was making an attempt to utilize the petroleum of Assam. He was granted certain rights over a large tract of land on both sides of the Dehing river, from Jaipur to the Noa Dehing. Oil was struck in one hole on March 26th 1867 at 118 feet, as many as eight holes having put down about this time. These results though didn’t allow Mr. Goodenough to establish a petroleum industry.

Attribute of setting up the Oil industry at Digboi goes to the Assam Railways and Trading Company (AR&T). It was under the guidance of Dr. John Barry White that on October 19th 1889, oil was struck at a depth of 178 feet at Digboi. From here started the journey of Oil Industry in India that speaks of a Legend holding its firm base at Digboi – the Legendary Oil town of Assam!

This Legendary history of the Digboi Oil Story is well preserved at the Digboi Centenary Oil Museum which is built on the fringes of Digboi Well No.1 from which oil is still gently seeping. Inaugurated in January 2002, this museum is a treasure house of memorabilia of the past, tools and equipment of the yesteryear s and elegant wall panels depicting the history of Oil refining in India. While an air raid shelter of the World War II greets visitors at the entrance of the museum, the steel rig of Digboi Well No. 1 stands as a silent sentinel of excellence adjacent to the museum building.

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to visit the Centenary Oil Museum at the Legendary Oil town of Assam – ‘DIGBOI’, home to ‘Asia’s oldest Oil Refinery’ and the ‘Oldest Operational Oil Well in the World’, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
The Air Shelter of the Second World War at the Digboi Oil Museum

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Welcome to the Centenary Oil Museum at Digboi, Assam, India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

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The Vintage view of Digboi Refinery with major landmarks kept on display at he centenary oil museum at Digboi in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
Tools used in Oil drilling on Display at the Centenary Oil museum at Digboi

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
A historic ford card at a display of the colonial British Era at Digboi Oil town in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Digboi Oil Museum Assam, Oil Industry History of Assam and India, Assam Ecotorism and Homestays, the Singpho Ecolodge Assam, Tea Tour of Assam, Second World War Cemetery, Museum in India
The Discover Oil Well No. 1 from where oil was first commercially drilled at Digboi in October 1889

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

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An Vintage Vehicle on Display at the Digboi Oil Museum

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi

Memoirs of the World War II – the Digboi War Cemetery, Digboi Oil Town, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

The period of 1939 to 1945 was one of the darkest moments in the history of mankind. It was during this period the world witnessed the Second World War – a state of ‘total war’ where the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. This war brought down the major super powers of the period into ashes. Japan was rocked with the mighty nuclear explosion of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was after the Second World War that the world realized the might of the Americans!

The World War II might have brought down the will of the Germans and Japanese to be the might of the World but it to be mentioned that all wars lead to destruction of devastating proportion. The World War II too led to the same fate and millions of people were killed around the world that included the soldiers of the Army who laid down their lives to bring peace to the World. The bodies of these brave soldiers were laid to rest across various cemeteries through the World and one of such is the Digboi War Cemetery that was built and is maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Located very near to the ‘Legendary Oil town of Assam’ – Digboi, this cemetery has about 200 burials mostly of British soldiers who laid their lives during World War II.

A little to elaborate, during the Second World War, Digboi, in the north-eastern corner of the state of Assam, near the Burmese border and on the road to Ledo, was on the lines of communication, and a military hospital was established there. Digboi War Cemetery was started for burials from the hospital and at the end of the war contained 70 burials. Later, the Army Graves Service brought in further graves from burial grounds in Panitola, Jorhat, Margherita, Tinsukia, Ledo, and as well as from the US Military Cemetery at Shingvuoiyang in Burma where permanent maintenance could not be assured. Originally the cemetery stood on a small spur rising sharply from the main road, but an earthquake in 1950 caused cracks here with one fissure extending the full length of the cemetery. Subsequent landslides occasioned by heavy rains, particularly in 1953, so endangered the cemetery that it became necessary to move the graves to the present site which was not likely to be affected by erosion. The cemetery now contains 200 Commonwealth burials of the Second World War.

And truly mentioned in one of the quotes of the cemetery –

‘These graves bear silent testimony to those soldiers, unlisted workers and labourers who ventured into Virgin jungle amid blistering heat and laid down their lives in the line of duty during the Second World War. Whilst part of all forces against the Imperial Japanese Army. THEIR NAME LIVETH FOREVER MORE

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to Witness History and Relive the Memoirs of the World War II – the Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Town, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The neatly arranged graves of the soldiers at the Green Digboi War Cemetery. Image Anil Paudel

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Entrance to the World War II burial ground of the Digboi War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Digboi Second World War Cemetery has been built and is maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The neatly arranged graves of the soldiers at the Green Digboi War Cemetery in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The neatly arranged graves of the soldiers at the Green Digboi War Cemetery in Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The neatly arranged graves of the soldiers at the Green Digboi War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The neatly arranged graves of the soldiers at the Green Digboi War Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Graves of the Burials of the Brave Soldiers of the British Army who died in the Second World War at Digboi Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Graves of the Burials of the Brave Soldiers of the British Army who died in the Second World War at Digboi Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Graves of the Burials of the Brave Soldiers of the British Army who died in the Second World War at Digboi Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Heritage Tourism, Second World War Stilwell Road, Assam Ecotourism, War Cemetery Digboi, Coal Museum Digboi, Oil Museum Digboi
The Graves of the Burials of the Brave Soldiers of the British Army who died in the Second World War at Digboi Cemetery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Awesome Assam, Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Refinery, Digboi Oil Museum
The Welcome Gate at the Digboi War Cemetery ~ Digboi ~ Assam ~ India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Awesome Assam, Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Refinery, Digboi Oil Museum
Distant view of the Center Cross at the Digboi War Cemetery ~ Digboi ~ Assam ~ India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Awesome Assam, Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Refinery, Digboi Oil Museum
The Well maintained graves at the Digboi War Cemetery ~ Digboi ~ Assam ~ India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Awesome Assam, Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Refinery, Digboi Oil Museum
The Center Cross at the Digboi War Cemetery ~ Digboi ~ Assam ~ India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Awesome Assam, Digboi Cemetery, Digboi Oil Refinery, Digboi Oil Museum
The Graves at the Digboi War Cemetery ~ Digboi ~ Assam ~ India

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India

The History of Coal Mining at Makum Coalfields, Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

The history of coal mining in the region of Assam dates back to the later part of the 19th century by the erstwhile Assam Railway and Trading Company (AR&T). A Civil Surgeon, Dr. John Barry White, while founding the Assam Railway and Trading Company played a very significant role in the early development of Assam’s mineral resources including the opening of the Makum Coalfields. Mr. George Turner, a mining engineer from South Staffordshire, also played an important role to transform the jungles and coal outcrops in the area into prosperous collieries in a few years time. Skilled practical miners were first brought from abroad to train Indian Workmen in the “South Staffordshire” method of wining thick coal seams.

The first mining of coal was started in 1882 at Ledo by Railway’s Engineers, when the erstwhile AR&T Company was laying its own Meter Gauge line. In order to increase the output of coal, the following collieries were started: at Tikak (1884), Namdang (1896), Tirap (1904), Baragolai (1909), Tipong (1924) and Namdang Dip (1904). The establishment of these mines were of great importance to the Tea Industry of Assam which hitherto was dependent upon wood fuel. Some indication of the nature of the Makum Coalfields are interpreted in the words of George Turner in 1895:

“Coal has been proved in these hills over the whole length of the Company’s area, and as coal of very nearly similar description is found in the hills twenty miles eastward and thirty miles westward, there can be no doubt of the existence of a large coalfield. The coal in the hills is found at various heights from Zero in the plains lip to 1000 feet above them. The hills conform in longitudinal direction with the strike of the rocks, although they do not form a continuous ridge, being cut through several streams. The coal has a high dip towards the hills, the average being about 1 in 3, but sometimes it is as high as 1 in 2”

All these erstwhile company mines were Nationalized on 1st May, 1973 and vested with the Central Government of India. At present, the entire coal production of North Eastern coalfields comes from Makum coalfield of Margherita Area, comprising of six mine of which Tipong, Ledo/Lachit Khani and Baragolai are underground mines (temporarily suspended due to DGMS violations) and Tirap, Ledo and Tikak are opencast mines. Both productivity and safety in these mines had improved significantly after nationalization.

Coal mining in Assam in extremely difficult. The area represents a typically folded and faulted mountain belt of Tertiary strata bounded by thrusts. the problem frequently encountered are steep inclination of coal seams, complex seam structure like inter-banding, irregular with thickness variations. The seams are highly gassy,susceptibility to spontaneous combustion, friable coal and poor roof and floor conditions.. The Chief Inspector of mines, in his annual report of 1929 referred to these coalfields as being “where the worst natural conditions of all the coal mines in India have to be faced.”

Certain methods of Underground Coal Mining in Makum Coalfields:

  • Bhaska Method: Blocks of inclined and thick coal seams are developed on Board and Pillar System. The junction of a level gallery and a dip-rise gallery is then widened and heightened by drilling and blasting to form a dome shaped void which is self supported. The dome is kept on widening and heightening till the roof coal starts caving down automatically. As in this method the recovery is low it is no longer practiced.
  • Tipong Method: Very similar to the Bhaska method of mining in the Tipong Method, between two sub levels, a funnel is made in coal along the dip-rise gallery which is kept unsupported. Then a slot is cut from Hanging Wall to Foot Wall along the dip-rise direction with a limited width to provide a free face. Towards outbye of the slot, rings of drill-holes are made and blasted to make the broken coal flow onto the funnel.
  • Descending Shield Method: A Coordinated effort with engineers of erstwhile USSR, this method was introduced in 1983-84. A Shield of timber beams, reinforced with Steel, is made and placed horizontally from Hanging Wall to Foot Wall and coal is blasted below the same to make it flow downward. The Shield descends downward making a canopy above the work-persons face. This practice has been discontinued now.
  • Flexible roofing method: Here, in place of a shield, artificial roofing is made out of MS-strips and wire netting which is hinged at the Hanging Wall at the top of the panel. Blasting and loading is done below artificial roofing. Roof rocks cave down over the artificial roofing and do not get mixed with the blasted coal. Likewise, the whole block is de-coaled below the artificial roofing.

The History of Coal Mining in Assam is put up on an elaborate display at India’s only Coal Museum at Margherita where visitors get to experience the thrill of underground coal mining. Also put up on display are Steam Locomotives built by W G Bagnall of Stafford in the late 1800’s. Operational Steam locomotives of the likes of ‘796’ and ‘DAVID’ are to be found at Tipong Colliery. The Open cast mining experience can be enjoyed at Tirap Colliery that practices the traditional Shovel-Dumper style Open-cast Coal Mining and is a located a little while away from Margherita.

Jungleideas welcomes you to India’s North East to witness the History of Coal Mining at Makum Coalfields, Margherita, the State of Assam, Incredible India!

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Entrance of the Namdang Coal Mine as on 1948

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Setup of an Underground mine at India’s only coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Underground Coal Mining Setup at India’s only Coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Underground Coal Mining Setup at India’s only Coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Namdang Opencast Quarry as in 1901

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Rare Pictures of Tirap Bridge and the Stilwell Road of World War II at Ledo

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Dr John Barry White was the pioneering of Coal and Oil industry of Assam

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Coal Miners operate at underground depths of Upto 3 kilometers in length to extract coal from the depth of coal mines

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The John Steam locomotove by WG Bagnall of Stafford on display at India’s Coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Hassang Steam locomotove by WG Bagnall of Stafford on display at India’s Coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Shelly Steam locomotove by WG Bagnall of Stafford on display at India’s Coal Museum at Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Open Cast Mining by Volvo Earth Movers at Tirap Opencast Colliery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Open cast mining at the present day at Tirap Colliery near Margherita

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Open Cast Mining by Volvo Earth Movers at Tirap Opencast Colliery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Operational Steam Locomotives at Tipong Underground Mining Colliery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
The Operational Steam Locomotives at Tipong Underground Mining Colliery

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India

Map of Coal Deposits across the Sates of North East India in Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal and Nagaland

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II

Assam Coal Mining, Tipong Colliery steam locomotives, Singpho Eco Lodge Margherita, Ecotourism Homestay in Assam, Tribes and Festivals of Assam and North East India
Map of Coal Mines of Tipong, Tikak, Namdang, Ledo and Makum Coalfields

Recommended Itinerary for your Visit: Memoirs of World War II